Despite the occupational risks, the incidence of STIs in sex workers in Australia is among the lowest in the world. This has largely been through the establishment of safe-sex as a norm, the availability of safe sex equipment and community-driven health promotion and peer-based interventions. Sustaining this achievement will require continuing support of prevention initiatives to minimise transmission of STIs and BBVs.

Sex workers are a priority population because of their significantly higher number of sexual encounters than other community members and the higher potential for transmission of STIs. Other contributing factors are relative youth, discrimination, mobility and migration, and barriers to control over the occupation health and safety conditions of their work and to health service access. High priority subpopulations require tailored and targeted interventions. This includes transgender sex workers, street based sex workers, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sex workers (including those who provide sex for favours), culturally and linguistic diverse sex workers, sex workers who inject drugs and male sex workers.